Technology

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DESALINATION BATTERY

Our technology provides an innovative and energy-efficient solution to address challenges at the intersection of the water-energy nexus.  

Cl STORAGE IN THE FORM OF BiOCl

Our technology is based on our team's patented discovery that bismuth (Bi) can serve as a practical and efficient Cl-storage electrode. Bi can store and release Cl though the reversible electrochemical conversion of Bi to BiOCl (READ MORE). 

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE DESALINATION BATTERY

Our DESALINATION BATTERY is constructed by combining Bi as a Cl-storage electrode with a Na-storage electrode. 

In the desalination battery, the energy storage and release processes are coupled with the removal and release of Na and Cl.

This new technology that can simultaneously achieve desalination and energy generation/storage is ideally positioned to have a remarkable impact on the water−energy nexus (READ MORE).

High Salt Removal Capacity 

The use of Na-storage and Cl-storage electrodes that store ions in the bulk of the material enables a high capacity for salt removal

Membrane-Free Desalination

The removal of Na and Cl via ion-specific electrode reactions enables membrane-free desalination and eliminates the processes and costs associated with the prevention of membrane fouling

Energy Recovery 

The energy consumed during the charging process is recovered during the discharging process, reducing the net energy required for desalination

Rechargeable Battery System

Like conventional batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries), desalination batteries store and release energy during the charging and discharging processes

ION REMOVAL AND RECOVERY

The ion-storage electrodes can selectively and cost-effectively remove specific ions from the feedwater through simple and environmentally-friendly electrochemical reactions. Our technology provides a unique opportunity for selective ion removal from wastewater and will have a tremendous environmental impact across the United States and globally (READ MORE).

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SHEET-TYPE ION STORAGE ELECTRODES

We developed a new fabrication process to prepare sheet-type Na-storage and Cl-storage electrodes that has allowed us to achieve a stable performance for more than 5,000 cycles; equivalent to 7 years of operation with no loss in performance if two cycles are performed per day!

In our electrodes, individual particles of active material are surrounded by a rigid three-dimensional carbon and binder network, which improves the structural stability and lifetime of the electrodes (READ MORE).

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                           ROBUST

                  FLEXIBLE

VARIABLE THICKNESS

SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ARTICELS

1. Bismuth as a new chloride-storage electrode enabling the construction of a practical high capacity desalination battery

Do-Hwan Nam, Kyoung-Shin Choi, 

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2017, 139, 11055-11063. (READ MORE

2. Electrochemical desalination using Bi/BiOCl electrodialysis cells

Do-Hwan Nam, Kyoung-Shin Choi,

ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2018, 6, 15455-15462.

 (READ MORE

3. A desalination battery combining Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 as a Na-storage electrode and Bi as a Cl-storage electrode enabling membrane-free desalination

Do-Hwan Nam, Margaret, A. Lumley, Kyoung-Shin Choi,

Chemistry of Materials, 2019, 31, 1460-1468. (READ MORE)

4. Tandem desalination/salination strategies enabling the use of redox couples for efficient and sustainable electrochemical desalination

Do-Hwan Nam, Kyoung-Shin Choi,

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2019, 11, 38641-38647.

 (READ MORE)

5. Elucidating structure-composition-property relationships of Ni-based Prussian blue analogues for electrochemical seawater desalination

Margaret, A. Lumley, Do-Hwan Nam, Kyoung-Shin Choi,

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2020, 12, 36014-36025.

 (READ MORE)

6. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical approaches for the selective removal, recovery, and valorization of chloride ions

Do-Hwan Nam, Dongho Lee, Kyoung-Shin Choi

Chemical Engineering Journal, 2021, 404, 126378. (READ MORE)

7. Electrochemical redox cells capable of desalination and energy storage: Addressing challenges of the water–energy nexus

Do-Hwan Nam, Margaret, A. Lumley, Kyoung-Shin Choi,

ACS Energy Letters, 2021, 6, 1034-1044. (READ MORE)

8. A seawater battery with desalination capabilities enabling a dual-purpose energy storage system

Do-Hwan Nam, Margaret, A. Lumley, Kyoung-Shin Choi,

Energy Storage Materials, 2021, 37, 556-566. (READ MORE)

PATENTS

1. Bismuth-based chloride-storage electrodes

Kyoung-Shin Choi, Do-Hwan Nam 

United States patent registration number: US 10414674 B2 

The patent was granted on 2019.09.17.

   

  Child applications: 

   US20190382288A1 (Publication date: 2019.12.19.)

  International applications: 

  WO2018136130A1 (Publication date: 2018.07.26.)

  AU2017394846A1 (Publication date: 2019.08.01.)

  SG11201906646SA (Publication date: 2019.08.27.) 

  KR20190102284A (Publication date: 2019.09.03.) 

  IL268067D0 (Publication date: 2019.09.26.)

  CN110325481A (Publication date: 2019.10.11.) 

  EP3571165A4 (Pubalication date: 2020.01.08.)

  JP2020507885A5 (Publication date: 2020.09.10.)   

(READ MORE)

2. Electrodialysis cells based on the use of redox mediators

Kyoung-Shin Choi, Do-Hwan Nam, Dong Ki Lee

United States patent application number: US 2020/0140296 A1 

The patent was issued on 2020.05.07.

  International applications: 

  PCT/US2019/055507 (Filing date: 2019.10.10.)

(READ MORE)

 

3. Aqueous energy storage systems with desalination capabilities

Kyoung-Shin Choi, Do-Hwan Nam, Margaret Lumley

United States patent application number: Not yet published

The patent was filed on 2021.02.02.

4. Tandem electrodialysis cell systems based on the use of redox couples

Kyoung-Shin Choi, Do-Hwan Nam

United States patent application number: Not yet published

The patent was filed on 2021.02.10.